“What do you Do you think the rate of Covid-19 is for us? Many Black people living in Berlin asked me this question at the beginning of March 2020. The answer: we don’t know. Unlike other countries, notably the United States and the United Kingdom, the German government does not collect racial identity information in official documents and statistics. Due to the country’s history with the Holocaust, appeal race (breed) with its name has long been disputed.
To some, data that focuses on race without considering overlapping factors such as class, neighborhood, environment, or genetics sounds surreptitiously deceptive because it may not capture the multitude of elements that affect well-being. Similarly, some information makes categorizing a person into an identity difficult: A multiracial person may not want to choose a racial group, one of many conundrums that make labeling demographics difficult. There is also the element of trust. If there are reliable statistics documenting racial data and health in Germany, what is being done about it and what does it mean for the government to potentially access, collect or use this information? As in the history of artificial intelligence, numbers often poorly reflect Black people’s experiences or are often misused. Would people trust the federal government to prioritize the interests of ethnic or racial minorities and other marginalized groups, particularly when it comes to health and medicine?
Still, the lack of racial identity data collection may obscure how certain groups might be disproportionately affected by a disease. Racial self-identities can be a clue for data scientists and public health officials to understand the rates or trends of any disease, be it breast cancer or Covid-19. Racial data has been helpful in many contexts in understanding injustice. In the United States, statistics on maternal mortality and race were a sign that African Americans were disproportionately affected, and have since provided a compelling basis for changing behavior, resources, and policy regarding childbirth practices.
In 2020, the educational association Each One Teach One, in partnership with Citizens for Europe, launched The Afrozensus, the first large-scale sociological study of blacks living in Germany, addressing employment, housing and health – part of deepening insight into ethnic composition this group and the institutional discrimination they may face. Of the 5,000 respondents, just over 70 percent were born in Germany, with the other top 4 being the United States, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. Germany’s Afro-German population is heterogeneous, a reflection of an African diaspora descended from various migrations, be they Fulani from Senegal or the descendants of slaves from America. “Black” as an identity cannot and does not capture the cultural and linguistic richness of the people who fit into this category, but it can be part of a tableau of shared experiences or systematic inequalities. “I don’t think the Afro census revealed anything that black people didn’t already know,” said Jeff Kwasi Klein, project manager of Each One Teach. “Yes, there is discrimination in all walks of life.” The results of this first attempt at race-based data collection demonstrate this ignoring race did not allow racial minorities to eradicate prejudices in Germany.
The idea that It was not uncommon for Europeans to use the term “race” in the 18th century. In fact, some of the most renowned scientists of the time not only used the term, but created a pseudo-scientific rubric to codify people. The German physician and naturalist Johann Blumenbach coined the term “Caucasian” in his 1775 publication. About the natural diversity of mankind, in which he divided people into five races. His colleague, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, followed suit and created a taxonomy for humans into four distinct species: Europeans, Americans, Africans, and Asians. Zoé Samudzi notes that under the auspices of colonialism, German scientists such as Eugen Fischer resorted to the use of color charts and hair textures of mixed-race people in German-African colonies to justify antimiscegenation and eugenic claims. Fischer’s work later informed the Nazi racial classification system and the Nuremberg Laws, which argued that German identity was based on jus sanguinis rather than place of birth. The exclusion of Jews and people of African descent from being German also meant that the Nazi state discouraged interracial marriages. in the Superior: The Return of Racial ScienceAngela Saini pointed out that the misperception that some racial categories are superior to others is not a relic of the pseudoscientific past, but a phenomenon that European-American societies have grappled with in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Rather than fixate on strict, formulaic racial categories, many contemporary scientists instead seek to chart human movements and human ecosystems. Evolutionary biologists have shown that cultural adaptations are far more important than phenotype. Skin color, which refers to the distribution of melanin in the skin, has been associated with early human settlements relative to the equator. Not surprisingly, the closer people settled to the equator, the more melanin there was in their skin, and the farther from the equator, the lighter the skin. If we look at another factor, also based on environment, we find that skin color – which only sometimes correlates with race – is an arbitrary category to define human differences. One condition, sickle cell anemia, is a mutation found in people affected by malaria, which is more prevalent in climates with heavy rainfall. This leads people to believe that people with the sickle cell trait descended from ancestors who had to deal with the malaria pathogen themselves in places like central India, eastern Saudi Arabia and equatorial Africa. If we were to group people next to traits that deal with environmental conditions, such as B. the sickle cell trait, would our categories for racial classification of people change? Science is a handicraft in which no single gene or trait can explain human evolution. Whether the term “race” should be used in the German constitution — not to mention the issue of data collection — is a living dispute that attempts to complicate history with lived reality.
https://www.wired.com/story/race-germany-covid-19/ What Germany’s Lack of Race Data Means During a Pandemic